《学校中的有效教学》(节选)翻译实践报告之英语研究

来源: www.7225367.com 作者:vicky 发?#38469;?#38388;:2019-06-04 论文字数:41025字
论文编号: sb2019051611464526253 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇英语论文,本报告是以对《学校中的有效教学》的翻译实践活动为依据,基于功能翻译理论的核心理论“目的论”,灵活运用多种翻译技巧,对其前三章内容进行了翻译。
本文是一篇英语论文,本报告结合目的论三原则,对翻译过程中遇到的相关典型例子进行了?#27835;觥?#20026;实现有效沟通,增强语言的可接受性,在目的原则的指导下,对比?#27835;?#20102;中文与英文的特点,结合翻译案例,主要对主动与被动、简短与繁复、动态与静态等语言差异进行了深入?#25945;鄭?#20026;增强译文的连贯性,在连贯原则的指导下,运用改形、分译、增译、减译等多种翻译技巧,主要对相关长难句进行了?#27835;觥?#25552;高了译文的流畅程度,凸显了句子的逻辑关系;为忠实于原文,正确表达原文意图,在忠实原则的指导下,合理翻译相关词汇、短语和句子,使译文既忠实于原文作者,又有效传递了原文信息。

ChapterⅠ  General Introduction

1.1 Background of the Project
Nowadays,  with  the  rapid  development  of  society,  the  internationalization  of education has become the trend of education reform and development in the world today. Education  reform  has  gradually  become  the  focus  of  many  countries  and  regions. (Wolfgang,  2007)  Since  the  founding  of  New  China,  the  importance  of  education  has attracted attention in society. As an important way to cultivate the talents who are useful to the society, education plays an increasingly important role in today. Effective teaching develops  rapidly,  and  the  achievements  in  this  field  are  constantly  updated.  The introduction  and  exchange  of  cutting-edge  academic  achievements  is  very  important  for the  development  of  education  in  China.  The  practice  results  of  translation in  effective teaching has increased year by year, but it is necessary to bring in oversea new research achievements  in  order  to  keep up  with  the  cutting-edge  research  in  the  field  of  effective teaching. Therefore, effective teaching must be consistently developed and translated into advanced  teaching  materials  and  works  in  order  to  be  in  line  with  international  higher education.
After a large number of searches, the author found that the translation literature and research  on  educational  texts  are  uncommon. The  author  hopes  that  the  research  and translation of this text will provide corresponding reference for similar text translation. By translating the text, we can learn about the foreign education system, education status and existing problems. This has a certain reference function to China’s education system, so it has great translation value.
In the processes of translation, the author strives to improve the language expression ability,  comprehensively  uses  a  variety  of translation  strategies,  and  collects  available resources.  The  author  hopes  that  through  this  translation  practice  and  the  writing of  this report,  author  will  promote  translation  practice  ability  to  a  certain  extent.  To  further improve the author’s professional quality. 
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1.2 Overview of the Source Text
1.2.1 Content of the Source Text
The  source  text  is  an  information  text  to  introduce  Effective  Teaching  in  Schools, This book focuses on both education and learning aspects of effective teaching in school education. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is Chapter 2 to 3. It focuses on providing an understanding of key issues that are fundamental to enhancing effective teaching and the nature of student learning. The second part is Chapter 4 to 8, focusing on the  implementation  of  effective  classroom  practices.  Finally,  the  third  part  is Chapter  9, which deals with reflections on teaching experience.
1.2.2 Text-Type of the Source Text
This article belongs to the pedagogical article, the style is formal, and the words are refined,  standardized,  and  rigorous.  However,  in the  division  of  the  text-type,  the translator delineates this article as an informational text based on previous studies. In the field  of translation  studies,  these  two  people  have  made  important  contributions  to  the theory of text-type, one is Reiss and the other is Newmark. (李晓君, 2011;  刘军平, 2009; Munday, 2001)
In the 1970s, the representative of German Functionalist School, Reiss, proposed the Text  Theory.  According  to  many  theoretical studies,  Reiss  concluded  that  text  could  be divided into three types, informational text, expressive text, and operational text. (沈妍伶, 2017) The  theory  of  Reiss’s  text  type  is  proposed  to  a  certain  extent  on  the  basis  of  the British  scholar  Newmark’s  theory. Newmark  divided  it  according  to  the  function  of language, namely information function, expression function and inspiration function, and also  divides  the  text  into  three  types,  namely  information,  expression  and  inspiration. (Newmark, 2001;  孔喜悦, 2017)  
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ChapterⅡ  Translation Processes

2.1 Pre-translation Preparation
Before the translation, the author did a lot of preparations. First of all, the translator reads  the  full  text,  and  understands  the  basic structure  of  the  text,  then  accepts  the guidance and suggestions of the tutor. Next, the translator reads the source text repeatedly to let author have a deeper understanding of the content. Secondly, the translator consults a  large  number  of  parallel  texts,  looks through  the  relevant  information,  grasps  and determines  the  translation  form  of  professional  vocabulary,  learning  about  the relevant things. Third, the translator reads a lot of books about translation theory, puts the strong theoretical foundation as the support of the report. (傅勇林, 2011) Finally, the translation theory is selected according to the text type and linguistic features.
Since  the  text  mainly  expounds  effective  teaching  to  the  readers,  it  is  necessary  to make the translation objective and accurate, then convey the original information properly, so that the target readers can understand the essence of the source text as far as possible. Fourthly,  the  author  has  prepared  a  wealth  of  translation  aids  (冉文婷,  2017;  张万防, 2015),  including  the  English-Chinese  Dictionary  edited  by  Lu  Gusun,  the  Oxford Higher-order  English-Chinese  Dictionary  and  the  New  Century  Chinese-English Dictionary.  Now,  the  network  information  covers  a  wide  range  of  information,  and  the search speed is fast. In the processes of translation, translators need to use various search engines,  such  as  Google,  Baidu  and  so  on,  to  ensure  the accuracy  of  translation,  let  the target text be reasonable.
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2.2 Translation Procedures
In the whole processes of translation, the author first makes a general reading of the source text of the translation practice, and has a preliminary understanding of its content, number of words and style of writing. The translator also completed the finalization within the prescribed  time  according  to  the  school’s  goals  and  tutor’s  opinions.  The  translator consults  the  major  websites  and  related parallel  texts,  and  summarizes  the  terminology. After choosing the theory, combined with the characteristics of educational text language, the author began to translate.
In  the  whole  translation  processes,  the  translator  is  still  constantly  enhancing  the knowledge and consulting professionals to translate proper nouns. After the translation of each  paragraph,  the  translator  will  check  the  contents  of  the  translation,  and modify  the omissions,  so  as  to  ensure  the  uniformity  of  terminology  and  the  consistency  of  the translation. The uncertain places and difficulties are marked for future review. When the translator has some inaccuracies, consults the parallel text at first, and then discusses with colleagues.  The  translator  organizes  and  summarizes  the  existing  problems  in  the translation  processes,  and repeatedly  interprets  the  translations,  so  that  they  can  be summarized and as the preparation for case analysis in the future. Translator analyzes and summarizes the problems and difficulties that is encountered in the translation processes every  day,  and classifies  them  to  find  out  the  corresponding  solutions.  Try  to  make  the expression of the translation fit the target readers’ thinking and realize the communicative function of translation. Generally speaking, the preparatory work of translation is closely related  to  the whole  translation  processes.  There  are  many  unexpected  problems  in  the processes  of  translation.  The  translator  tries  to solve these  problems  through  various methods.  In  many  cases,  although  the  translator  thinks  that  translation  is  reasonable, others may not think so. Therefore, in the translation project, students from the education majors are also specially asked to give their opinions with professional eyes to avoid the one-sided  view  of  the  translator.  The  translator  thinks  that  only  when  most  people  have given the opinion, can we get more objective results.
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ChapterⅢ  Description of the Translation Theory ..................................... 9
3.1 Skopos Theory ................................... 9
3.2 Three Principles of Skopos Theory ........................ 11
ChapterⅣ  Case Study Based on Skopos Theory ................................. 15
4.1 Application of Skopos Rule ................................... 15
4.2 Application of Coherence Rule ............................... 17
ChapterⅤ Summary .................................... 23
5.1 Deficiency and Experience ............................ 25
5.2 Translation Enlightenment ...................... 26

ChapterⅣ  Case Study Based on Skopos Theory

4.1 Application of Skopos Rule
The Skopos Rule can be expressed as translating/ interpreting/ speaking/ writing in a way  that  enables  the  text/  translation  to achieve  its  intended  function  in  the  context  in which it is used, consistent with the way the text/translation user wants the text to achieve its  intended  function.  (Nord,  2001)  Vermeer’s  “translation/  interpretation/  speaking/ writing”  is  a  continuous  concept. (Gentzler,  2008)  In  order  to  achieve  effective communication,  the  translator  must  put  the  acceptability  of  language  in  the  first place. There  are  great  differences  between  Chinese  and  English.  Chinese  belongs  to  the Sino-Tibetan language family and English belongs to the Indo-European language family. According  to  the  summary  of  the  famous  translator  Lian  Shuneng,  the differences  are mainly  divided  into  ten  categories:  analysis  and  synthesis,  dispersion  and  aggregation, parataxis  and combination,  brevity  and  complexity,  person  and  object,  initiative  and passivity,  dynamic  and  static,  concrete  and  abstract, direct and  indirect,  repetition  and substitution.  (连淑能, 2010) The author chooses several groups that are more obvious in the translation processes and explains the translation strategies.
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ChapterⅤ Summary

5.1 Deficiency and Experience

In  this  translation  processes,  the  translator  also  has  a  lot  of  gains.  First  of  all,  the translator can basically complete the task within the time specified by the school. Second, the  translator  makes  reasonable  use  of  the  surrounding  resources.  The  author also  can effectively  use  the  Internet  search  engine  to  solve  the  problems  encountered  in  the translation  processes.  If  the network  resources  cannot  be  used  for  processing,  then  ask students modestly, so that the problem can have a reasonable solution. Next, translation is a  dynamic  process,  which  requires  the  translator  to  have  solid  theoretical  knowledge. Effectively  link the  theoretical  knowledge  learned  to  achieve  the  combination  of theoretical  knowledge  and  practice  in  a  certain  degree.  In this  translation  project,  the author  connects  the  translation  methods  and  translation  theory  to  guide  the  translation practice. The source text is an educational text, which involves the relevant knowledge of education,  so  the  translation  should  be  based  on  the Skopos  Theory,  which  requires  the translator to learn and master the background knowledge of educational knowledge. Since each text type is different, the translator should also accurately analyze the text type and choose the appropriate translation methods and strategies for the source text. Engaging in English-Chinese  translation  requires  a  comprehensive  understanding  of  English.  The translator  should  have  a  comprehensive  knowledge  of  grammar,  a  large  vocabulary,  a large  amount  of  reading,  a  broad range of  grammar,  semantics,  pragmatics,  stylistic knowledge,  the  accumulation  of  idioms  and  so  on.  Without  accurate  understanding, the correct expression cannot be discussed, and the level of Chinese language directly affects the  quality  of  the  translation.  We cannot  ignore  the  learning  of  the  native  language  and strive  to  improve  Chinese  language  cultivation.  Read  more  classics, learn  authentic Chinese, and improve the ability of Chinese writing.
referemce(omitted)

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